Entering Data in SPSS Statistics
It allows you to fine-tune statistical analysis and data manipulation in ways that would be tedious, difficult, or impossible to do through the drop-down menus. This tutorial covers the basics of understanding SPSS syntax. Part 2: Creating data means that you will enter the variables and values manually into SPSS to create a new dataset. Importing data means that you will use an existing data file that someone has already prepared and simply load it into SPSS.
SPSS Tutorials: Data Creation in SPSS
Thus, each variable goes in a separate column. For example, if we had measured the height and weight of a group of individuals, the data in SPSS Statistics would look like the following: The Subject column has been added so that it is clear that each individual is placed on a separate row. However, SPSS Statistics does not need you to enter this column, and it is mostly for you to be able to better visualize your data.
So, even if we ignored the Subject column, we can see that one individual was 1. How to label variable columns is in our Working with Variables guide. To add more variables, simply add more columns – one column per variable. The only variation to this is discussed later in this guide when we have to enter repeated measures.
They are groups where the individuals in each group are unique i. In this sense, you could call the groups “mutually-exclusive”. A common example is when differentiating between gender. You want to label some of your individuals as female and others as male. To identify which subjects were males and which were females, you need to create a “grouping variable” in SPSS Statistics.
This is a separate column that includes information on which group a subject belongs to. We do this by labelling our groups numerically. For example, we label “males” as “1” and “females” as “2”. By using the value attribute we can label these numbers as representing males and females, respectively.
An example is shown below: Looking at the columns on the left we can see that we have created a “grouping variable” called “Gender” that has two categories: Because we labelled the numbers using the value attribute we can use the Value Label Button to switch to the text version of the “grouping variable” categories. In this example, we can see that “1” and “2” are replaced by “Male” and “Female”, respectively.
How to do this is explained in our guide on Working with Variables. We can see in this example that the first three subjects were males and the last four subjects were females.
What if you have more than two categories of your “grouping variable”? Simple, just add more numbers with, we recommend, corresponding text labels.
Join the 10,s of students, academics and professionals who rely on Laerd Statistics. This can occur when you have measured the same subject for the same variable at more than one time point or under more than one condition. For example, you measured body weight at the beginning and end of a weight-loss programme.
To enter this into SPSS Statistics, you must ignore the “one-variable-one-column” rule and put each time point or condition in a new column as follows: It does not matter what you call these “related” columns you could have called them weight1 and weight2, for example , as long the columns make sense to you. This is important as SPSS Statistics cannot tell the difference between columns that contain different variables and columns that contain a repeated variable.
Therefore, it cannot help you. This will require two columns that act as “grouping variables”, as shown below: Here, we can see that, for example, Subject 1 was male and sedentary, and Subject 7 was female and active. Notice that we are using the text labels as described earlier in this guide for added clarity.
If we had males and females undertake a weight-loss programme and we weighted them pre- and post-intervention, we would have the following setup in SPSS Statistics: To generate this type of setup, simply used the rules you have learnt in this guide under the Defining Separate Groups and Entering Repeated Measures sections.
Those who plan on doing more involved research projects using SPSS should follow up this brief intro with more in-depth training. The good news for beginners is that you can accomplish most basic data analysis through menus and dialog boxes without having to actually learn the SPSS language. Menus and dialog boxes are useful because they give you visual reminders of most of your options with each step of your analysis. However, some tasks cannot be accomplished from the menus, and others are more quickly carried out by typing a few key words than by working through a long series of menus and dialogs. As a beginner, it will be strategic to learn a bit of both SPSS programming and the menus.
VIDEO: How do I analyze data in SPSS for Z-scores?
Important Links. Where to run SPSS? How to get SPSS? Installing, Customizing, Updating SPSS. Statistical Analysis. Data Analysis Examples · Annotated. For one of our replication projects, we have two SPSS datasets. As they are part of a follow up study (we have wave 1 and wave 3), they principally include the. Using SPSS to Understand Research and Data. Analysis. Daniel Arkkelin. Valparaiso University, firstname.lastname@example.org Follow this and additional works at.