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We discourage downloading of copyright-protected content. The following list is solely for the purpose of information and finding legal content on torrent websites. Regular users of the BitTorrent network might very well remember how the torrent-giants KickAss and ExtraTorrents went down. There has also been an increasing rise in demand for the VPN services , which unblock torrent sites.
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Description[ edit ] The middle computer is acting as a “seed” to provide a file to the other computers which act as peers. The BitTorrent protocol can be used to reduce the server and network impact of distributing large files. The protocol is an alternative to the older single source, multiple mirror sources technique for distributing data, and can work effectively over networks with lower bandwidth.
Using the BitTorrent protocol, several basic computers, such as home computers, can replace large servers while efficiently distributing files to many recipients.
This lower bandwidth usage also helps prevent large spikes in internet traffic in a given area, keeping internet speeds higher for all users in general, regardless of whether or not they use the BitTorrent protocol. A user who wants to upload a file first creates a small torrent descriptor file that they distribute by conventional means web, email, etc.
They then make the file itself available through a BitTorrent node acting as a seed. The file being distributed is divided into segments called pieces. As each peer receives a new piece of the file, it becomes a source of that piece for other peers, relieving the original seed from having to send that piece to every computer or user wishing a copy.
With BitTorrent, the task of distributing the file is shared by those who want it; it is entirely possible for the seed to send only a single copy of the file itself and eventually distribute to an unlimited number of peers. Each piece is protected by a cryptographic hash contained in the torrent descriptor.
If a node starts with an authentic copy of the torrent descriptor, it can verify the authenticity of the entire file it receives. Pieces are typically downloaded non-sequentially and are rearranged into the correct order by the BitTorrent client, which monitors which pieces it needs, and which pieces it has and can upload to other peers. Due to the nature of this approach, the download of any file can be halted at any time and be resumed at a later date, without the loss of previously downloaded information, which in turn makes BitTorrent particularly useful in the transfer of larger files.
This also enables the client to seek out readily available pieces and download them immediately, rather than halting the download and waiting for the next and possibly unavailable piece in line, which typically reduces the overall time of the download. Once a peer has downloaded a file completely, it becomes an additional seed. This eventual transition from peers to seeders determines the overall “health” of the file as determined by the number of times a file is available in its complete form.
The distributed nature of BitTorrent can lead to a flood-like spreading of a file throughout many peer computer nodes. As more peers join the swarm, the likelihood of a completely successful download by any particular node increases.
Relative to traditional Internet distribution schemes, this permits a significant reduction in the original distributor’s hardware and bandwidth resource costs.
Distributed downloading protocols in general provide redundancy against system problems, reduce dependence on the original distributor  and provide sources for the file which are generally transient and therefore harder to trace by those who would block distribution compared to the situation provided by limiting availability of the file to a fixed host machine or even several.
Each client is capable of preparing, requesting, and transmitting any type of computer file over a network, using the protocol. A peer is any computer running an instance of a client. To share a file or group of files, a peer first creates a small file called a ” torrent ” e.
This file contains metadata about the files to be shared and about the tracker , the computer that coordinates the file distribution. Peers that want to download the file must first obtain a torrent file for it and connect to the specified tracker, which tells them from which other peers to download the pieces of the file.
Though both ultimately transfer files over a network, a BitTorrent download differs from a classic download as is typical with an HTTP or FTP request, for example in several fundamental ways: BitTorrent makes many small data requests over different IP connections to different machines, while classic downloading is typically made via a single TCP connection to a single machine.
BitTorrent downloads in a random or in a “rarest-first”  approach that ensures high availability, while classic downloads are sequential. Taken together, these differences allow BitTorrent to achieve much lower cost to the content provider, much higher redundancy, and much greater resistance to abuse or to ” flash crowds ” than regular server software. However, this protection, theoretically, comes at a cost: This contrasts with regular downloads such as from an HTTP server, for example that, while more vulnerable to overload and abuse, rise to full speed very quickly and maintain this speed throughout.
In general, BitTorrent’s non-contiguous download methods have prevented it from supporting progressive download or “streaming playback”. However, comments made by Bram Cohen in January  suggest that streaming torrent downloads will soon be commonplace and ad supported streaming  appears to be the result of those comments. In January Cohen demonstrated an early version of BitTorrent streaming, saying the feature was projected to be available by summer The peer creates a hash for each piece, using the SHA-1 hash function, and records it in the torrent file.
The exact information contained in the torrent file depends on the version of the BitTorrent protocol. By convention, the name of a torrent file has the suffix. Torrent files have an “announce” section, which specifies the URL of the tracker, and an “info” section, containing suggested names for the files, their lengths, the piece length used, and a SHA-1 hash code for each piece, all of which are used by clients to verify the integrity of the data they receive.
Though SHA-1 has shown signs of cryptographic weakness, Bram Cohen did not initially consider the risk big enough for a backward incompatible change to, for example, SHA BitTorrent is now preparing to move to SHA Torrent files are typically published on websites or elsewhere, and registered with at least one tracker.
The tracker maintains lists of the clients currently participating in the torrent. Azureus was the first  BitTorrent client to implement such a system through the distributed hash table DHT method. The purpose of the flag is to prevent torrents from being shared with clients that do not have access to the tracker. The flag was requested for inclusion in the official specification in August , but has not been accepted yet. The client connects to the tracker s specified in the torrent file, from which it receives a list of peers currently transferring pieces of the file s specified in the torrent.
The client connects to those peers to obtain the various pieces. If the swarm contains only the initial seeder, the client connects directly to it and begins to request pieces. Clients incorporate mechanisms to optimize their download and upload rates; for example they download pieces in a random order to increase the opportunity to exchange data, which is only possible if two peers have different pieces of the file.
The effectiveness of this data exchange depends largely on the policies that clients use to determine to whom to send data.
Clients may prefer to send data to peers that send data back to them a ” tit for tat ” exchange scheme , which encourages fair trading. But strict policies often result in suboptimal situations, such as when newly joined peers are unable to receive any data because they don’t have any pieces yet to trade themselves or when two peers with a good connection between them do not exchange data simply because neither of them takes the initiative. To counter these effects, the official BitTorrent client program uses a mechanism called “optimistic unchoking”, whereby the client reserves a portion of its available bandwidth for sending pieces to random peers not necessarily known good partners, so called preferred peers in hopes of discovering even better partners and to ensure that newcomers get a chance to join the swarm.
Peers arriving after the initial rush might find the content unavailable and need to wait for the arrival of a “seed” in order to complete their downloads. The seed arrival, in turn, may take long to happen this is termed the “seeder promotion problem”.
Since maintaining seeds for unpopular content entails high bandwidth and administrative costs, this runs counter to the goals of publishers that value BitTorrent as a cheap alternative to a client-server approach. It is possible to obtain the IP addresses of all current and possibly previous participants in a swarm from the tracker. This may expose users with insecure systems to attacks.
However, there are ways to promote anonymity; for example, the OneSwarm project layers privacy-preserving sharing mechanisms on top of the original BitTorrent protocol.
A moderate degree of anonymity, enough to keep ISPs from giving the user trouble at least, can be achieved with seedboxes which download the torrent files first to the companies’ servers, followed by a direct download to the user.
Tor does not provide anonymity on BitTorrent,  and its use is also discouraged by blocking this type of connections for performance reasons. This can be useful for users trying to avoid copyright complaints from their ISPs, maintaining privacy, or avoiding censorship.
Private trackers offer users a greater degree of privacy, compared to public trackers, but have the downside of a single centralized point of failure. Bridging between i2p and the clearnet[ edit ] Vuze is the only client that makes clearnet torrents available on i2p and vice versa. It has a plugin that connects to the i2p network. If the user adds a torrent from i2p, it will be seeded on both i2p and the clearnet, and if a user adds a torrent from the clearnet, it will be seeded on both the clearnet and i2p.
For this reason, torrents previously published only on i2p are made available to the entire Internet, and users of i2p can download any torrent on the Internet while maintaining the anonymity of i2p. Independent adopters report that without using BitTorrent technology, and its dramatically reduced demands on their private networking hardware and bandwidth, they could not afford to distribute their files.
Film, video, and music[ edit ] BitTorrent Inc. Babyshambles and The Libertines both bands associated with Pete Doherty have extensively used torrents to distribute hundreds of demos and live videos. Podcasting software is starting to integrate BitTorrent to help podcasters deal with the download demands of their MP3 “radio” programs. Specifically, Juice and Miro formerly known as Democracy Player support automatic processing of. Responses have been very positive, and NRK is planning to offer more content.
The Dutch VPRO broadcasting organization released four documentaries in and under a Creative Commons license using the content distribution feature of the Mininova tracker.
Blog Torrent also allows visitors to download a “stub” loader, which acts as a BitTorrent client to download the desired file, allowing users without BitTorrent software to use the protocol.
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Preview or stream torrents as they download; Protect your computer with integrated antivirus; Get the codecs you need to enjoy HD video; Easily move files to. Many torrent downloads are stuck at 99% because the seeder has left. BitComet tries to improve the performance by using the unique Long-Term Seeding. With the Torrent HT both novice and experienced riders alike will dominate rocks and roots on technical downhills and tackle steep, loose climbs with ease.